complete extended essay guide with hack your course ap and ib tutoring servicecomplete extended essay guide with hack your course ap and ib tutoring service

This comprehensive and unique Extended Essay (EE) guide aims to help tutors and students learn about EE in detail in just one page (about 4000 words!). By reading this guide, they will learn about the steps they need to take, their responsibilities, and the common pitfalls and mistakes. We have written this by consulting dozens of documents. Enjoy reading it!

What is Extended Essay in IB Curriculum?

The extended essay is a compulsory and externally assessed component of the International Baccalaureate Diploma Programme, in which candidates are required to present a formal piece of academic writing with a 4,000-word limit and a reflection form with a 500-word limit. The writing process occurs within a span of 2 years and about 40 hours of work (different schools follow different models). Students are guided by an assigned supervisor (generally a teacher in the school).


The extended essay is structured to engage students in independent research of an academic subject of personal interest. The essay is concerned with exploring a refined research question (RQ) through interpreting and evaluating evidence from a range of sources, while learning to construct reasoned arguments. Guided by a supervisor, students are encouraged to evaluate decisions, reflect on insights and skills gained, and respond to challenges by proposing alternative methods or ideas.

The Extended Essay is not the same as an IA. Therefore, students should adopt a different strategy for writing their EE. It must be based firmly on published research and, if applicable, their own experiments, while skillfully integrating and evaluating the information collected and extracted from the references and their own work.

In the end, the hope is that the student will have developed self-management, communication, evaluative, and research skills integral to future undergraduate endeavors.


The candidate is allowed to write their research paper on the subjects below. However, the availability of the subject will depend on different schools’ policies. 

1. Individuals and Societies: Business Management; Economics; Geography; Global Politics; History; Information technology in a global society (ITGS); Philosophy; Psychology; Social and Cultural Anthropology; World Religions.

2. The Sciences: Biology; Chemistry; Computer Science; Design Technology; Physics; Sports, Exercise, and Health Science.

3. Mathematics

4. The Arts: Dance; Film; Music; Theatre; Visual Arts

5. Interdisciplinary Subjects: Environmental Systems and Societies; Literature and Performance; World Studies.

The Research and Writing Process

1. Choose an approved DP subject.

2. Choose a topic.

3. Undertake preparatory reading.

4. Formulate a well-focused RQ.

5. Plan the research and writing process.

6. Structure the essay (i.e., outline headings, main arguments).

7. Carry out the research.

Structure of the Essay

The final piece of writing is required to contain the following elements:

1. Title Page

    – The title page should include: 

  • Title of the essay
  • Research question
  • Subject the essay is registered under.
  • Word Count

2. Contents Page

3. Introduction

    – The introduction should include:

  • The focus of the essay
  • Scope of the research
  • Indication of the line of argument

4. Body of the Essay (research, analysis, discussion, and evaluation)

   a. The body of the essay should be presented in the form of a reasoned argument.

   b. Many candidates will include sub-headings to organize and present the evidence supporting the essay’s line of argument.

6. References and bibliography

   – The conclusion must contain:

      i. A final, summative statement/conclusion that clearly answers the RQ
      ii. Any limitations or questions that have not been solved (can act as extensions for future research)

5. Conclusion

   The most common citation styles are MLA, APA, and Chicago. Visit this website for guidance.

*Note 1: For the final version of the essay, the name of the student or the school should not appear on any page.

*Note 2: While the word limit is 4,000, the following are NOT included in the word count: contents page, tables, equations/formula/calculations, citations/references, bibliography, footnotes, maps, charts, diagrams, annotated illustrations and headers.

Title vs. Research Question

The title page must contain both a title and a research question (RQ). The title differs from the RQ in that it should be a clear statement summarizing the research, which gives an indication of the research topic. It must not be phrased as an RQ. Here are some examples:

Title: An exploration of evil as a motivating force in drama

RQ: How effectively does Christopher Marlowe present his view of evil in Dr. Faustus?

Title: The feasibility of wireless networking in a city-wide context

RQ: To what extent is wireless networking a feasible alternative to cabled networking within a whole-city context?

Title: An exploration of an aspect of the narrative voice in Vladimir Nabokov’s Lolita

RQ: How far and to what effect does Humbert’s narration of the erotic vignettes change over the course of Vladimir Nabokov’s Lolita?

Title: The effects of transnational corporations on urban areas

RQ: To what extent has the influx of technological and financial transnational corporations in the Grand Canal Dock area given rise to disparities between this and the Irishtown-Ringsend area?

Title: Comparative study of availability of public services in Districts of Warsaw

RQ: What is the pattern of availability of public services, measured by access to healthcare, education and public transport in the districts of Warsaw, and does this pattern correlate  with the average prices of real-estate properties?

Title: Analysis of J.L. Mackie’s refutal of Alvin Plantinga’s Free Will Defence

RQ: To what extent has J.L. Mackie refuted Alvin Plantinga’s Free Will Defence?

Title: Prediction and investigation of the time required to completely drain a cylindrical tank filled with water

RQ: What is the relationship between the height of water in a tank and the time needed to completely drain the tank?

Title: The Mathematics of Musical Consonance

RQ: Why are some Musical Intervals More Consonant than Others?

Title: Assessing government intervention to reduce negative externalities of car use in Moscow

RQ: How effective has state-owned Moscow Metro’s pricing strategy been in reducing the negative externalities of car use in the city?

Title: Calculating the reaction between methyl azide and propyne, with and without homogeneous catalysts

RQ: Can we gain insight on how the rate of the reaction between methyl azide and propyne differs with and without a homogeneous catalyst?

Academic Honesty & Effective Referencing

It is critical that the extended essay reflect the principles of academic honesty; the precise sources of quotations, ideas, and images must be referenced (either in-text or using footnotes), and a bibliography must be included.

*Inaccurate referencing will be viewed as academic misconduct and will be investigated by the IBO. *

1. Bibliography 

A bibliography is found at the end of the essay, before the appendix.

2. In-Text Citations

In addition to a bibliography, candidates must also include in-text citations to show the specific place in the essay that the source was used.

Developing a research question (RQ)

Developing a clear and focused RQ is one of the most important stages of the entire writing process. All students, regardless of the subject, must present their RQ as a question.

Recommended steps:

1. Choose a subject and topic of interest. 

2. Carry out the preliminary reading

   a. consider the following questions:

      i. What has already been written about this topic?

      ii. Is there a range of sources available?

      iii. Is there a range of views or perspectives on the topic (i.e., is it arguable?)

3. Consider the emerging questions.

   a. Focus on the keywords “to what extent”, “how”, and “why” (these words are often present in the RQ). 

4. Evaluate the question.

a. Ask yourself:

    i. Will the RQ be specific enough to allow for exploration with the limited number of words and time available?

    ii. Does the RQ allow for analysis, evaluation, and the development of a reasoned argument?

5. Consider research outcomes.

   a. Consider the possible direction(s) of the research by asking yourself:

       i. Based on the evidence available, what is my main argument?

       ii. How will I answer my RQ?

Here are some examples for Unclear, broad, and unarguable RQ vs Clear, focused RQs capable of in-depth research (URQ vs CRQ):

URQ: What is the history of Chinese theatre?

CRQ: How does the legacy of Mei Lan Fang contribute to modern Jingju?

URQ: How important is chlorophyll to plant life?

CRQ: What is the effect of different concentrations of kinetin on leaves aging and the biosynthesis of chlorophyll?

URQ: Is Bitcoin the future?

CRQ: “Will Crypto Replace Gold As The Go-To Inflation Hedge In 2025?”

As seen from the examples above, a well-formulated RQ should be specific enough to provide scope for analysis and a reasoned argument.

Additionally, the RQ must be directly answered by the final summary statement in the conclusion. For example:

Research Question: To what extent did the policies and actions of Joseph Stalin improve women’s standard of living?

Final Summary Statement: Stalin’s policies and actions did not improve women’s standard of living based on the two criteria, liberty and equality, as stated in the introduction.

Students should include the RQ in the introduction and refer to it throughout the essay.

Extended Essay Assessment Criteria

The entire extended essay is assessed out of 34; see below for the 5 specific criteria contributing to this mark.

Criterion A: Focus and method (maximum mark: 6)

This criterion focuses on the development of the topic, RQ, and methodology. According to IBO, to achieve full marks in this criterion, candidates must ensure that:

1. The topic is communicated accurately and effectively.

    a. A title is present.
    b. The purpose and focus of the research are clear and explicitly outlined in the introduction.
    c. There is an explanation of WHY the topic is worthy of investigation.

2. The research question (RQ) is clearly stated and focused.

   a. It is clearly stated, focused, and allows for in-depth investigation and evaluation.

3. Methodology of the research is complete.

a. An appropriate AND sufficient range of sources is used.

    i. “Appropriate” refers to using sources that align with the academic standards for the subject of concern. That does not include popular magazines or newspapers for science essays!

       Ex) For a biology essay, it would be expected to include more scientific reports, but in a history essay, secondary and primary sources should be used more often instead.

    ii) “Sufficient” refers to the amount of each type of source that should be used.

      Ex) For an economics essay, it would not be sufficient to only use textbooks but also include reports and data.

Students should discuss the theory behind the techniques and methods they have used and why they chose them to demonstrate their understanding of the science.
They should use correct units and a correct number of significant figures.
Students should write their methodology in a way that others can replicate it without the need for other references.
The whole essay is constructed to answer the research question. Therefore, students should not lose their focus from answering the research question.

Criterion B: Knowledge and understanding (maximum mark: 6)

This criterion assesses the extent to which the essay uses appropriate terminology and concepts specific to the subject. According to IBO, to achieve full marks in this criterion, candidates must ensure that:

1. Knowledge and understanding are excellent.

    a. There is a demonstration of relevant selection and application of sources. If a range of sources has not been used, the students should justify choosing the limited selection.

    b. Background information based on research is relevant and accurate.

2. Use of terminology and concepts is good.

     a. Understanding is demonstrated through appropriate subject-specific terminology. 

         Ex) For an economics essay, using terminologies such as “subsidies, “negative externality”, “welfare loss”, etc.

Poor selection of reliable references and/or lack of effective use of sources, especially in the discussion, is one of the most common problems that leads students to receive lower scores.
Using too many quotations from the references instead of integrating them naturally into their discussions is another put-off for examiners.
Consistent terminology, including symbols, variables, units, scientific notations, uncertainties, and annotated diagrams, is vital to getting a high mark in this criterion.

Criterion C: Critical thinking (maximum mark: 12)

This criterion is the most important criterion and assesses the extent to which critical and analytical thinking skills have been applied to evaluate the chosen research question. According to IBO, to achieve full marks in this criterion, candidates must ensure that:

1. The research is excellent.

     a. Research undertaken is focused on the research question.

     b. Sufficient research is carried out to allow the readers to understand the topic and allow for analysis.

2. Analysis is excellent.

    a. Analysis of the research is effective and focused on the research question.

    b. All analysis is supported by evidence.

3. Discussion/evaluation is excellent.

a. A reasoned argument is formulated from the research.

b. The argument is well-structured and coherent, demonstrating evidence of critical thinking.

c. The conclusion is supported by the evidence and analysis.

If the students are using their own practical methods (e.g., in biology, chemistry, or physics), they not only need to write the reasons for choosing that specific method, but also about other techniques and alternatives and how choosing an alternative methodology may have affected their research.
By losing focus on the research question, some students risk writing a descriptive text rather than an analytical and critical one, especially when working on their English A.
Separating the results and discussion sections is recommended as it might strengthen students’ thinking and create a line of reasoning.
In their conclusion, students should assess the limitations of their work and the areas that could be improved, changed, or built upon. It is not a summary of the whole text but a synthesis of it.
Errors are inevitable; students should talk about their significance and the possibility of avoiding or correcting them either in future works or in the current essay.

Criterion D: Presentation (maximum mark: 4)

This criterion assesses the extent to which the structure of the essay allows for effective communication and whether it follows the standard format expected for academic writing. According to IBO, to achieve full marks in this criterion, candidates must ensure that:

1. Presentation is good.

    a. Structure: structure of the essay is compatible with the expected conventions of the research paper and its subject.

        Ex. For a history essay, the section “Background Information” may be required.

   b. Layout: the 6 required elements—title page, contents page, introduction, the body of essay, conclusion, references & bibliography—are present (see “Structure of Essay” section for more details).

    c. Appropriate formatting: the bibliography is included (see “Academic honesty & Effective Referencing” section for more details).

    d. Word limit: Extended essay has not exceeded the maximum word limit of 4,000. It should be noted that examiners are instructed to ignore any parts of the essay that exceed 4,000 words. Some students tend to put some material in the appendix that belongs in the body. Unfortunately, examiners see that as a way of evading the word limit and penalize the student.

Splitting a table over two pages, ending a page with a heading, breaking an equation into two lines, not using appropriate mathematical notations, exceeding 4000 words, putting essential or irrelevant/unnecessary material in the appendices, not labeling figures/diagrams/data tables/graphs are some of the reasons for receiving a lower score in this section.

Splitting a table over two pages, ending a page with a heading, breaking an equation into two lines, not using appropriate mathematical notations, exceeding 4000 words, putting essential or irrelevant/unnecessary material in the appendices, not labeling figures/diagrams/data tables/graphs are some of the reasons for receiving a lower score in this section.

Criterion E: Engagement (maximum mark: 6)

This criterion assesses the student’s engagement with the research process and their ability to reflect upon the successes and challenges they encountered.

It is assessed by looking at the whole essay and the Reflections on planning and progress form (RPPF), written by the students, as well as the supervisor’s comments (see “Formal Reflection Sessions” below for more details).

According to IBO, to achieve full marks in this criterion, candidates must ensure that:

1. Engagement is excellent.

    a. The student is capable of evaluating decisions made throughout the process.

         Ex) Explaining why they chose to use a specific source.

    b. Improvements and alternative pathways are suggested based on the challenges experienced.

    c. There is evidence of intellectual initiative and creative approach through which the essay has been planned.

    d. The student’s own unique voice, rather than the supervisor’s and tutors’, is present in the reflections.

         Ex) Explaining in their reflections HOW they found an interest for their topic. 

Assessment Grade Descriptors

All extended essays are externally assessed by an examiner appointed by the IB, and every student will receive a grade from A-E based on their total score out of 34.

A — work of an excellent standard.
B — work of a good standard.
C — work of a satisfactory standard.
D — work of a mediocre standard.
E — work of an elementary standard.

The mark range changes every year depending on candidates’ performance; for example, in 2018, the mark range was as follow:

Grade A: 27-34

Grade B: 21-26

Grade C: 14-20

Grade D: 7-13

Grade E: 0-6

* Note: A student must receive a D or higher to be awarded the Diploma.

Researcher’s Reflection Space (RRS)

The Researcher’s Reflections Space (RRS) can be compared to a journal, where students record reflections on what they are reading, writing, and thinking. While the IB will not be able to see what was written in the RRS, it is highly recommended that students take advantage of this space as it will help them track their ideas and progress. Many supervisors will also encourage use of the RRS as it facilitates the formal reflection sessions by helping students remember details of the various stages throughout their writing process. Some supervisors may even mandate students to share excerpts from their RRS to stimulate meaningful discussion and authenticate the student’s writing. Some recommend tools are AvidnoteEvernotebubbl.usMiroStormboardManagebac.

Check-in Sessions

Check-in sessions are informal and often consist of an occasional 10–15-minute meeting with the supervisor to clarify a question or solve a problem. However, in rare cases, it may also be longer, involving discussion on a specific issue, such as getting access to resources. Ultimately, the frequency and length of the check-in sessions are dependent on the supervisor’s schedule and the amount of help that the student needs and they have no effect on the final assessment of the essay.

Formal Reflection Sessions:

All students are required to have three formal meeting sessions (first, interim, final) with their supervisor. After each session, the student is required to write a short reflection on the writing process and what was discussed during the meeting, as well as the challenges they encountered, and the important decisions and changes they made. These reflections must be recorded on the RPPF, and the maximum limit for all three reflections is 500 words (see below for an example).

The meetings typically last 20-30 minutes, and students should be prepared to actively engage in dialogue and answer any questions posed by their supervisor. The meetings happen at different times based on the internal deadlines set by each individual school.

The purpose of the reflections is to:
   ● Help students with the development of their essay, from planning to research to writing.
   ● Allow students to re-examine the rationale behind their actions and choices, and to decide whether changes are necessary.
   ● Let supervisors confirm the authenticity of the student’s writing.

The most successful candidates will produce a reflection that shows a high level of engagement with the learning process, highlighting challenges they may have experienced and showing evidence of intellectual and personal growth.

It is important to complete the reflections with effort as it contributes to Criteria E: Engagement (see above for detailed criteria description).

1. The First Reflection Session

The initial reflection session should consist of a dialogue between the student and supervisor based on the student’s initial exploration and ideas. It is highly recommended that students send their supervisors an outline of their research proposal before the meeting to allow supervisors to review and give feedback. Topics discussed in this session often include:
   ● review of requirements and assessment criteria
   ● discussion of the research proposal and any problems that may arise.
   ● proposing questions to stimulate student’s thinking aimed at helping them refine their RQ
   ● approval of research method and RQ
   ● proposal of writing timeline

2. The Interim Reflection Session

The interim reflection session is a continuation of the discussion from the initial session. Topics discussed in this session often include:
   ● feedback on a section of sustained writing from the student in order to ensure basic academic writing requirements are met.
   ● whether an appropriate range of sources are being utilized
   ● whether sources are cited accurately
   ● whether the student is critically evaluating the reliability and origin of the sources

At the end of this session, students should have a clearly refined RQ, a sufficient range of appropriate sources, and a viable argument.

– Presentation of Draft Version of Essay

Supervisors are allowed to view and comment on one completed draft of the essay prior to the final version and the final reflection session. However, supervisors are limited in the level of support that they can give; they are allowed to add open-ended comments, but they will not correct spelling/punctuation, rewrite any parts of the text, proofread the essay for errors, or correct citations.

After commenting on one full draft, the next version of the essay must be the final version that is submitted to IBO. The final version of the extended essay must not contain any comments from anyone, and once the final version has been submitted to the supervisor and discussed in the final reflection session, students are not permitted to make any other amendments.

3. The Final Reflection Session (viva voce)

The final reflection session, also known as the viva voce, is a mandatory interview between the student and supervisor. It is viewed as a celebration of the completion of the essay and an opportunity for the student to reflect on the skills acquired through the process. Topics discussed in the viva voce often include:
   ● supervisor asking students open-ended questions.
     Ex) What was the most valuable skill that you learned?
            What is one thing that you would do differently next time?
            What is one piece of advice you would offer to future IB students?
   ● Opportunity for supervisors to authenticate students’ ideas and sources.
   ● Opportunity for students to reflect on successes and difficulties encountered.

Students should avoid writing RPPFs that are either too short or too long. A well-written RPPF will show the student’s motivation for choosing the topic and their growth over the sessions. Students usually make the mistake of treating the RPPF like a diary and risk losing scores in criterion E. Examiners and the IBO see the RPPF as a chance for students to reflect on the skills they have developed during the IB curriculum and solidly show their motivation and growth during sessions.

An Example of an RPPF:

Warning: please do not attempt to copy any parts of the reflection shown below as they belong to individuals; the reflection is only meant to act as a guide and example.
Below is an example of a well-written reflection by one of our tutors at Hack Your AP and IB Tutoring Service, who received an A on her final essay.

(Feminism Under Joseph Stalin. RQ: To What Extent did the Policies and Actions of Joseph Stalin Improve Women’s Standard of Living?)

For my essay, I wanted to focus on the role woman played in society because I think gender analysis gives insight into the environment people were living under during different time periods. Aside from being interested in Russia’s history, I chose to focus on women during Stalin’s regime because with the rise of Stalinism and Communism, women’s lives changed. I narrowed my scope by focusing on policies implemented by Stalin and evaluating to what extent they improved women’s lives. I initially planned to focus on one group, like peasant women, but I realized this would give an incomplete outlook. After, I decided that I would focus on 3 categories: women in workforce, household, education because this will allow me to address women with different occupations in my essay. As I researched, the first challenge was that some sources gave conflicting information; going forward, I will utilize multiple sources for confirmation.

During my EE writing process, I had a difficult time balancing between the “right” amount of background information and evaluation. I found it hard choosing whether or not a piece of information should be included; however, my supervisor cleared my doubts by telling me to only include information that are important to the evaluation of my RQ. Another challenge I had was with sources: it was initially difficult evaluating the credibility of sources because I was solely commenting on the origin/author of the source. However, afterwards, I realized that reliability should be extended to the work itself and talking about how those limitations influence the topics of my discussion. Another big change I made mid-way through my paper was deciding to compare Stalin’s policies & actions with those of Vladimir Lenin. I started to realize that I had no “measurement” to say whether Stalin improved women’s lives— but by comparing Stalin with Lenin, 2 figures that had different outlooks towards women, I can clearly show how women’s lives changed drastically after Stalin took over.

Overall, I am very pleased with my final essay, and I was surprised by how fascinated I was with my topic! Throughout the process, I have learned valuable skills, including how to reference sources and find background information, that have helped me strengthen my researching skills. Another valuable skill I have gained is the ability to synthesize various pieces of information into a coherent argument. I learned that the process of research not only entails simply finding information, but also considering the weaknesses and strengths of the sources where the information came from. I think the biggest strength of my essay was that the purpose and structure of my essay remained clear throughout, which really helped me focus my paper and enabled me to distinguish between the kind of sources I needed. However, I think that if I were to write the essay again next time, I would choose to narrow down my research topic even more – perhaps only focusing on women in a specific group: this would allow for a more in-depth investigation.

The above reflection is well-written and shows evidence of personal engagement because:

   1. The student explains the reasons for choosing her topic & RQ.

       Ex) She finds gender analysis to be important to historical analysis, and she has always been interested in Russian history.

   2. The student explains the challenges that she encountered and how she resolved them.

      Ex) She had a difficult time deciding which information she should include, but at the end, sought help from her supervisor, who told her to only include information relevant to the analysis of her RQ.

   3. The student mentions changes that she made to her essays and explains WHY she did so.

     Ex) In the initial reflection, she planned on focusing on one group of women, but realized that this approach would give an incomplete outlook.

     Ex) In the interim reflection, she realized that she had no measuring criteria to evaluate whether Stalin’s policies improved women’s lives, so she decided to compare Stalin’s policies with those of Lenin.

   4. The student makes clear the skills that she learned from this process (evidence of intellectual and personal growth).

     a) She learned how to reference sources and find background information, which strengthened her research skills.

   5. The student reflects on the strengths AND weaknesses of her essay.

     Ex) The strength was that the purpose and structure of her essay remained clear. However, if she were to write the essay again, she would choose to narrow down her RQ further to allow for a more in-depth investigation.


Most of the common mistakes for specific criteria have been added as comments at the end of every criterion. Here are a few additional problems students may make:

1. Formulating a RQ that is overly broad or narrow.

2. Using inappropriate sources.

Many examiners will check the credibility of the sources. In general, scientific journals, articles, and novels are preferred over websites. However, it is important to have a range of sources to show the examiners that you are capable of in-depth research!

3. Incorrect referencing.

Correct referencing is especially important to avoid plagiarism. Remember that IDEAS also needs to be referenced.

4. Writing an informative essay rather than argumentative

The entire purpose of the extended essay is to develop a reasoned argument. Thus, avoid sounding like Wikipedia in your essay—only provide background information that is necessary to the analysis of your RQ.

Tips & Advice

1. Set personalized deadlines!

A common problem that many students struggle with is time management. Allocating yourself abundant time to write the essay AND proofread it is important to the quality of the final work.

2. Establish a good relationship with your supervisor.

Ultimately, they are the ones who will be assessing your essays to give you a predicted grade, and their comment is important to the examiners who will give you the final grade. Therefore, use them to your advantage as they are also most likely experienced in the subject.

3. Spend time formulating your research question.

To some extent, your RQ will determine the final success of your essay. Therefore, making sure the RQ ion is focused, clear, and arguable is extremely important. Ensure that your RQ is approved by your supervisor first.

4. Keep track of sources used. 

Do this as soon as possible to avoid issues with plagiarism. It is also very easy to spend hours finding the source that you have used and forgotten the origin. You can use some helpful software or websites like ZoteroMendeleyQiqqaJabref to keep track of your sources and put them automatically in order according to your chosen style guide (APA, MLA, Harvard,…).

5. Do not lose easy marks

It is surprising to see how many students lose their marks on easily avoidable mistakes.

For Example:

   ● Make sure to have all the 6 required elements required by IBO (see “Structure of Essay” section).

   ● Make sure to keep words under 4,000.

   ● Make sure you have a title.

The Role of External Mentors and tutors

According to IBO, ideally, students should write the Extended Essay only under the guidance of their supervisor; however, in circumstances that the school deems to be appropriate, students may seek the help of an external mentor (like a tutor). If this is the case, the external mentor must understand and sign this letter.

Students are required to:

   1. Develop their own RQ. 

   2. Develop their own appropriate and ethical research methods

   3. Collect and process their own data.

   4. Show critical understanding of approaches used.

   5. Demonstrate academic integrity.

The external mentor must not:

   1. Provide the student with an RQ or focused topic 

   2. Provide ready-to-use techniques and protocols

   3. Provide advanced or extensive support

   4. Provide a ready-to-use data analysis tool

   5. Read, edit, or comment on any written work

If the external mentor and student do not follow any of the above regulations, it is considered malpractice and will be investigated by IBO.



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Hack Your Course AP & IB Tutoring Service
#230, 2030 Marine Drive
North Vancouver, BC, V7P 1V7, Canada
Phone: (604) 971-2533, (437) 998-2533
Hack Your Course AP & IB Tutoring Service
99 Yorkville Avenue
Toronto, ON M5R 1C1
Phone: (437) 998-2533